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Human Trafficking
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General EFC Resources

  • Submission to the Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs Bill C-310: An Act to Amend the Criminal Code (Trafficking in persons). Read the submission here. (June 2012)
  • EFC Supports Canadian Plan to Fight Human Trafficking. Read EFC's Press Release here. (June 2012)
  • Seeking Justice, Rescuing the Enslaved: Recommendations for a National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking. A 32-page report available at theEFC.ca/HTseekingjustice. (October 2011)
  • Not So Ancient: Human Trafficking and Modern Slavery, a booklet in the EFC's [ACTIVATE] series aimed to raise awareness, particularly for youth and adults. Order bulk copies for your group from the EFC library. (Fall 2009)
  • Human Trafficking: Tragedy and Hope, an informative group of articles in the NovDec issue of the EFC magazine Faith Today, including a column on the topic by EFC President Bruce J. Clemenger. (Fall 2009)


External Resources

RECENT USA RESOURCE: Trafficking in Persons Report 2009: Read the ninth annual Trafficking in Persons Report from the U.S. Department of State.

APAP, Joanna, Peter CULLEN and Felicita MEDVED; “Counteracting Human Trafficking: Protecting the Victims of Trafficking”, Center for European Studies

BOLZ, Jennifer; "Chinese Organized Crime and Illegal Alien Trafficking: Humans as a Cargo"

BRUCKERT, Christine and Colette PARENT; “Organized Crime and Human Trafficking in Canada: Tracing Perceptions and Discourses” 2004

BRUCKERT, Christine and Colette PARENT; “Trafficking in Human Beings and Organized Crime: A Literature Review”, 2002

Canadian Council for Refugees; “Assisting Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings

Canadian Council for Refugees; “Trafficking in women and Girls”, 2003

European Commission; “Assisting Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings”, January 2003

DOLAN, Christine; “The Scope of Human Trafficking” 2002, Intl. Humanitarian Campaign Against the Exploitation of Children

FUTURE GROUP, THE, “Falling short of the mark: An international study on the treatment of human trafficking victims

HERZ, Annette, “Investigating and Prosecuting Trafficking in Human Beings”, Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law - Freiburg, Germany, Online at: http://www.iuscrim.mpg.de/forsch/krim/herz_e.html

HUGHES, Donna M.; “The”Natasha” Trade: The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women”, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 53, No.2, Spring 2000 pp.625-651 online at: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/natasha_trade.pdf

Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Resources for Teachers Online at: http://gvnet.com/humantrafficking/00-Background.htm

International Federation Terres des Hommes; “Kids as Commodities? Child Trafficking and what to do about it” May 2004, online at: www.stopchildtrafficking.org/site/fileadmin/ stopchildtrafficking/downloads/presse/livre_fichier_final.pdf

International Labor Organization (ILO), “First Hand Knowledge, Voices Across the Mekong, Community action against trafficking of children and women, A Good Practice publication”, Bankok International Labor office, 2005

International Labour Organization (ILO); “Yunnan Province China Situation of Trafficking in Children and Women: A Rapid Assessment”,August 2002

JAVATE DE DIOS, Aurora, “Macro-economic Exploitation and their Impact on Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking of Women and Girls: Issues, Responses and Challenges”, CATW-Asia-Pacific; online at http://www.catw-ap.org/macro.htm

JORDAN, Ann D.; “The Annotated Guide to the Complete UN Trafficking Protocol” 2002, International Human Rights Law Group

KANGASPUNTA, Kristiina, “Mapping the Inhuman Trade: Preliminary Findings of the Database on Trafficking in Human Beings”; Forum on Crime and Society, vol.3 nos 1 and 2, December 2003 online at: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/crime_cicp_publications_forum.html

KELLY, E. And L. REGAN; “Stopping traffic: Exploring the Extent of, and Responses to, Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in the UK", Police Research Series Paper 125, 2000

KELLY, Liz; “Fertile Fields: Trafficking in Persons in Central Asia" 2005, IOM ($20.00) available through: iom.int

KEMPADOO, Kamala, Jyoti SANGHERA and Bandana PATTANAIK, eds., “Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work and Human Rights”, 2005, Paradigm Publishers, London

LACZKO, Dr. Frank and Dr. Elzbieta GOZDZIAK; “Data and Research on Human Trafficking: A Global Survey” 2005, IOM through: iom.int

LANGEVIN, Louise, Marie-Claire BELLEAU; “Trafficking in Women in Canada: A Critical Analysis of the Legal Framework Governing Immigrant Live-in Caregivers and Mail-Order Brides”, October 2000, Faculty of Law, University of Laval

MCDONALD, Lynn, Brooke MOORE and Natalya TIMOSHKINA; “Migrant Sex Workers from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: The Canadian Case”, November 2000, Centre for Applied Social Research, University of Toronto

MIRIAM, Kathy; “Stopping the Traffic in Women: Power, Agency and Abolition in Feminist Debates over Sex-Trafficking” Journal of Social Philosophy, Vol. 36, No. 1, Spring 2005 online at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-9833.2005.00254.x

OMELANIUK, Irena, “Trafficking in Human Beings” UN Publication, July 2005 online at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-2435.2005.00346.x

O’NEIL RICHARD, Amy; “International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime” Center for the Study of Intelligence, April 2000 online at: https://www.cia.gov/csi/monograph/women/trafficking.pdf

OSCE; “OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings”, Decision No. 557, 24 July 2003, Document number PC.DEC/557 Online at http://www.osce.org/press_rel/2003/pdf_documents/07-3447-pc1.pdf Accessed March 20, 2007

PEARSON, Elaine;” The need for effective witness protection in the prosecution of traffickers: a human rights framework for witness protection”, Anti-Slavery International, February 2001, online at: www.antislavery.org/archive/other/witnessprotection.pdf

PHINNEY, Alison; “Trafficking of Women and Children for sexual exploitation in the Americas”, 2001, OAS online at: http://www.oas.org/cim/English/Proj.Traf.AlisonPaper.htm

Philippine Women Centre of B.C., “Canada: The New Frontier for Filipino Mail-Order Brides”, 2000 Accessed March 19, 2007

POLARIS PROJECT, “Law Enforcement Toolkit on Trafficking in Persons”, Washington, D.C. Undated.

PORTER, Eduardo, “The Search fo Illegal Immigrants Stops at the Workplace”, The New York Times, March 5, 2006,”Economic View” from www.nytimes.com

POULIN, Richard, “Prostitution: Towards a Canadian policy of abolition” June 4th, 2005; online: http://sisyphe.org/imprimer.php3?id_article=1832

POULIN, Richard, “Globalization and the Sex Trade: Trafficking and the Commodification of Women and Children”, Feb. 12, 2004, online at http://sisyphe.org/imprimer.php3?id_article=965

POULIN, Richard, La mondialisation des industries du sexe; Prostitution, pornographie, traite des femmes et des enfants; Collection L’interligne, Ottawa, 2004

Toronto Network Against Trafficking in Women; “Trafficking in Women including Thai Migrant Sex Workers in Canada” online at http://www.mhso.ca/mhso/Trafficking_women.pdf

SHARMA, Nandita; “Travel Agency: A Critique of Anti-Trafficking Campaigns”, Refuge Vol. 21, no. 3 pp 53-65 Accessed March 19, 2007

TRUONG, Than-Dam and Maria BELEN ANGELES; “Searching for Best Practices to Counter Human Trafficking in Africa: A Focus on Women and Children” UNESCO, March 2005 online at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001384/138447E.pdf

UN “Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime” 2000. Accessed March 19, 2007

UN “Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime” 2000. Accessed March 19, 2007

UN, Economic and Social Council, “Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking: Report of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights to the Economic and Social Council”, Substantive session 2002, New York, 1-26 July, 2002. Accessed March 19, 2007

UN, Economic and Social Council; “Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women”, 2000, Document E/CN.4?2000/68, 29 February 2000. Available from the UN’s internet site

UN Development Program, Romania, Law Enforcement Best Practices in relation to combating Human Trafficking, 2004

U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Civil Rights Division, “Report on Activities to Combat Human Trafficking: Fiscal Years 2001-2005” Online at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/crim/trafficking_report_2006.pdf

U.S. Dept. Of Justice; “Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons” September 2005 online at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/annualreports/tr2005/assessmentofustipactivities.pdf

U.S Dept. Of Justice, “Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Washington,D.C., September 2006; online at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/annualreports/tr2006/assessment_of_efforts_to_combat_tip.pdf Accessed March 20, 2007

U.S. Dept. Of Justice, “Report to Congress from Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales on U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons in Fiscal Year 2004”, Washington D.C., July 2005 online at http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/annualreports/tr2004/agreporthumantrafficing.pdf Accessed March 19, 2007

U.S. Dept. Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice; “Characteristics of Chinese Human Smugglers” Aug. 2004, online at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/204989.pdf Accessed March 20, 2007

U.S. Dept. Of Justice “Trafficking in Persons and worker exploitation task Force” online at: http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/crim/tpwetf.htm Accessed March 20, 2007

VENKATRAMAN, Bharathi A. “Human Trafficking: A guide to Detecting, Investigating, and Punishing Modern-Day Slavery”; The Police Chief, vol. 70, no.12, December 2003 online at http://policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=174&issue_id=122003 Accessed March 20, 2007

Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children: “The Struggle between Migration Control and Victim Protection: The U.K. Approach to Human Trafficking” online at: http://www.womenscommission.org/pdf/UK_Trafficking.pdf

Internet Sites

International Labor Organization (ILO) of the United Nations

The Salvation Army in Canada, an EFC affiliate denomination, has a good collection of resources at www.salvationist.ca/trafficking. Its U.S. counterpart has a specific office to deal with Human Trafficking issues

Interesting E-Newsletter and web resource for Combating Human Trafficking

Complete listing and guide to various sites Prepared by IOM, “Annotated Guide to Internet-Based Counter Trafficking Resources

Excellent Web Portal for issues on Human Trafficking http://www.humantraffickingsearch.net

Polaris Project, Law Enforcement toolkit portal at: http://www.polarisproject.org/polarisproject/

A Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) webpage of frequently asked questions about human trafficking http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/imm-passp/q-a-trafficking-traite-eng.htm

SOLWODI (Solidarity with women in distress) Newsletter at: www.solwodi.de
They are a faith based organization assisting in the re-integration of victims of trafficking, especially women

UNESCO Internet tool to collect worldwide data on trafficking at: www.unescobkk.org

Winrock International, an NGO working with victims of Trafficking http://www.winrock.org

Project Respect has links to various articles on the issue http://www.projectrespect.org.au

Canadian Dept. of Justice has a series of links to various articles and papers http://canada.justice.gc.ca/en/fs/ht/links.html

Michigan State University Library has a site devoted to articles and links http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/human.htm

List of services available from MOSAIC, Vancouver

Issue: Human Trafficking

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Related Issue: Global Poverty
Related Issue: Pornography
Related Issue: Prostitution
Related Issue: Refugees

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